Each of the sources you cited in your paper also require a reference. References are more detailed than citations, and help your reader to find and view the sources you used.
All references are made up of 4-5 key parts:
These 4-5 parts are written side by side in an alphabetical list on the last page of your paper.
Authorship may be assigned to a group, or to one or more individuals.
List the author's last name first, followed by a comma, a space, and the initials of their first and (if given) middle name. Leave a space between the initials if a middle name is provided.
If there is more than one author, they should be listed in the order they appear on the source.
List the full name of the group in your reference.
The following table demonstrates how authors are listed on a source, and how these names should be listed in a reference:
|No. of authors||Authors as listed on source||Authors in a reference|
|1 author||Chelsea Vowel||Vowel, C.|
|1 author w/ middle name||Ruth L. Ozeki||Ozeki, R L.|
|2 authors||Giulia Poerio¹ and Peter Totterdell²||Poerio, G., & Totterdell, P.|
|3 to 19 authors||Elia Abi-Jaoude MSc MD, Karline Treurnicht Naylor MPD MD, Antonio Pignatiello MD||Abi-Jaoude, E., Treurnicht Naylor, K., & Pignatiello, A.|
|Group author||Canadian Blood Services||Canadian Blood Services.|
Note: Do not include professional titles (Dr.) or academic licenses/degrees (MD) in a reference. Include suffixes such as "Jr." and "Sr." after the initials.
The date of a source's publication follows the author in rounded brackets.
The date of publication follows the author, and is placed in rounded brackets. Include month and day if it is provided.
No date listed
If no date is provided, write "n.d." to indicate that no date was found. Do not use the copyright date listed on webpages.
The following table provides examples of how to include publication date information in a reference:
|Information on source||Date in reference|
|Year, Month Day||(2020, April 4).|
Note: If a webpage provides multiple dates, use the 'last updated' date. Do not use the 'last reviewed date' or the copyright (C) year listed at the bottom of a webpage.
The third part of a reference is the title of your source. Titles are formatted in sentence case, and are usually italicized.
Titles are always written in sentence case. This means that you should only capitalize:
The italicization of a title are determined by the following rules:
The following table identifies which types of sources require an italicized title:
|Work stands alone (italicize title)||Work has a container (do not italicize title)|
|Book or eBook||Chapter in an edited book (e.g. a textbook)|
|Webpage||Journal article/magazine article|
|Webpage on a news site without an associated daily/weekly paper (e.g., CBC News, BBC News, CNN)||News article with an associated daily/weekly paper (e.g., The New York Times; The Calgary Herald)|
|Government /nonprofit report||Podcast episode|
|Film; movie; YouTube video; Ted Talk||Episode of a television show|
|Government report; annual report|
|Social media post||Blog post|
The following table demonstrates how titles for different types of sources should be formatted in a reference:
|Source type||Title as written on source||Title correctly formatted for a reference|
|Journal article||Sociodemographic Diversity and Distance Education: Who Drops Out from Academic Programs and Why?||Sociodemographic diversity and distance education: Who drops out from academic programs and why|
|Book chapter||Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practices: A Case Study of an ESL Teacher in Canada||Teacher beliefs and classroom practices: A case study of an ESL teacher in Canada|
|Entire book||Language, Teachers, and Teaching: Global Perspectives, Local Initiatives||Language, teachers, and teaching: Global perspectives, local initiatives|
|Report||Cohesive, Collective, Collaborative: Advancing Mental Health Promotion in Canada||Cohesive, collective, collaborative: Advancing mental health promotion in Canada|
|Website||HARM REDUCTION||Harm reduction|
If your work is found within a larger container, the container is listed after the title in sentence case and italics. Examples of containers include scholarly journals, trade magazines, textbooks, and podcasts.
Since the container is a name, it should be written in title case. This means that most words should be capitalized. Do not capitalize:
If the work is inside a container, the container name is italicized instead of the title of the work itself.
The following table provides examples of how containers should be written in a reference:
|Container type||Name of container (in sentence case and italics)|
|Journal||Canadian Medical Association Journal|
|Magazine||The Medical Post|
|Edited book||Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing|
The final part of a reference entry is the publisher and/or the URL.
Physical sources are not online, so their reference entries will only include a publisher. Print books, DVDs, and print magazine and newspaper articles are examples of sources that do not have a URL.
Electronic sources are online, and usually have a URL that will help your reader to get back to the source.
Ebooks and journal articles are often assigned a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI starts with "https://doi.org/" and is followed by a string of numbers, letters, and symbols.
The following table provides examples of what publication and URL information to provide in a reference:
|Type of source||What to include||Example|
|Webpage||Site Name. URL||CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/china-lift-hubei-lockdown-1.5507908|
|Print book with DOI||Publisher. DOI||Ohio Press. https://doi.org/10.26818/9780814214282|
|Print book with no DOI||Publisher.||Routledge.|
Note: DOIs and URLS should be live (i.e., hyperlinked) in assignments that you submit online, such as through D2L.