APA Style, 6th Edition

What is a digital object identifier (doi)?

A doi is a combination of letters and numbers assigned to a journal article found online992370605px;">, such as on a website or in the library. There are two ways to identify a doi:

1) Begins with "http://dx.doi.org/." 

e.g.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028240

2) Begins with number "10" followed by a period. 

e.g: 10.1037/a0028240

Similar to a serial number or website address (URL), a doi provides a permanent way of locating a publication that does not rely on the URL. This is important because URLs are unstable and often change. 

Where do I find the digital object identifier (doi)?

The doi for a resource in the library catalogue/databases can be found in the record. After searching the library, click on the highlighted title in the search results to open the record.

This is an example of a record for an article titled Deliberate Practice of Motor Skills in Nursing Education. The doi is displayed at the bottom of the record:

Here is the proper APA style citation for this journal article:

Gorenak, M., & Ferjan, M. (2015). The influence of organizational values on competencies of managers. E+M Ekonomie a Management, 18(1), 67-83. doi:10.15240/tul/001/2015-1-006

What if I cannot find the digital object identifier (doi)?

Not all journal articles, particularly older publications, have an assigned digital object identifier.

  • APA style requires you to substitute the doi with a retrieval statement by finding and using the URL of the home page of the publication.
  • Use a search engine (such as Google) to locate the website of the journal. Copy the main (home) page web address and paste it at the end of the citation following the phrase "Retrieved from."
  • Do NOT retrieve the article on the journal's website and do NOT use the URL of the library catalogue or database where you found the article:

Retrieved from http://ezproxy.acbv.talonline.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.352280672&site=eds-live&scope=site

Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nup.12034/abstract

Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1466-769X

Basic Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article.Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), first page-last page. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com


de la Garza Carranza, M., & Egri, C. P. (2010). Managerial cultural intelligence and small business in Canada. Management Review, 21(3), 353-371. Retrieved from http://www.management-revue.org/

Cordeiro, W. P. (2013). Small businesses ignore strategic planning at their peril. Academy of Business Research Journal, 3, 22-30. Retrieved from http://www.aobronline.com/

Thornton, J. C., & Byrd, J. T. (2013). Social responsibility and the small business. Academy Of Entrepreneurship Journal, 19(1), 41-75. Retrieved from http://www.alliedacademies.org/public/journals/JournalDetails.aspx?jid=6

Harris, S., Renko, M., & Caldwell, K. (2013). Accessing social entrepreneurship: Perspectives of people with disabilities and key stakeholders. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 38(1), 35-48. Retrieved from http://www.iospress.nl/journal/journal-of-vocational-rehabilitation/


  • Do not use the URL where the article was retrieved either online or in the library catalogue or databases; This means the URL should NOT contain "ebscohost.com", "proquest.com", or any other database providers subscribed to by the LLC.
  • Use a search engine (such as www.google.ca) to find the URL of the journal's home page; If the name does not contain the word "journal," include it in the search to ensure you get the correct page, for example search "Nursing Ethics journal" instead of only "Nursing Ethics."
  • Remove the hyperlink formatting from the URL; copy and past it as unformatted text in black font with no underline.