APA in-text citation rules change depending on number/type of author(s). Identify and count the author(s), then follow the corresponding rule below:
Place the publication year after name of the author(s) in the same or a separate bracket:
1) No date can be clearly identified
Write n.d. (which means "no date"):
2) Republished sources (e.g. literary works in anthologies) where the more recent date would be misleading
If the original date is contextually significant, include both dates in parenthesis with a slash; list the earlier date first and the publication date of the actual source you are using second:
3) Two sources with the same author and same date
If you have two sources written by an author with the same publication date, use lowercase letters to help the reader know the difference:
When using the exact words (quotation) a page number must be included.
When using a paraphrase (rewording) of a source, you are not required to add the page number.
Basic format (quotation):
Use p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages in brackets after the quotation or paraphrase:
For non-consecutive pages, use pp. and a comma between the page numbers:
Exceptions: What if there are no page numbers?
If a source has no numbered pages, include paragraph numbers and/or headings.
To cite paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” If the source has headings, use quotation marks; you may also indicate the paragraph number under the heading if the section is lengthy:
Basic format (paraphrase):
In-text citations must be placed in your assignment every time you use a source. APA style uses the author-date method with brackets ( ) to include 3 parts in this order: (1) author(s); (2) publication year; and (3) page, paragraph number, or heading. Include these parts in any of the following three ways: