Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article in sentence case: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. doi:10..xxx/yyyyy
There are two options for citing this source in-text:
1) Last names of author(s), date of publication, and page number(s) are placed in brackets at the end of the sentence:
(Spitz & Hunter, 2005, p. 172).
2) Alternatively, the citation may be integrated into the sentence with a signal phrase and narrative:
Spitz and Hunter (2005) examined how some assumptions about Napster have gained currency while others have not (p. 172).
APA rules for in-text citation change depending on the number/type of author(s). Count the authors and follow the rule below:
Smith (the secondary source) refers to the ideas of Johnson (the original source):
> Option 1 - Johnson (2008) argued that the Calgary stampede is rooted in conservative political ideologies (as cited in Smith, 2013, pp. 102-103).
In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Smith.
Holden et al. (the secondary source) cite multiple research studies (the original sources):
> Option 2 - An increasing amount of critical analysis and evidence have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies (Hargittai & Feldman, 2010; Jones & Czerniewicz, 2010; Hope, 2011)” (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18).
> Option 3 - Multiple research studies have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies" (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18).
In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Holden et al.
Original source of example (catalogue/database record):
*A digital object identifier (doi) is a combination of letters and numbers assigned to a publication in electronic (online) format, such as a journal article in a database. There are 2 ways to identify a doi:
Like a serial number or web address (URL), a doi provides a permanent way of locating a publication that does not rely on the URL. Click here to learn more about finding a doi in the library's catalogue/databases.