APA Style, 6th Edition

How to Format In-Text and Reference List Citation With...

No Author(s)

  • If there is a group or organization responsible for the information, use it as the author. For example, the American Psychological Association (APA) and Government of Canada can be considered corporate authors if there is no individual(s) clearly listed or identified. 
  • If there is no individual person, group, or organization listed as author(s), move the title of the web page, book, article, or document to the author position in reference entries:

Autonomy. (2008). Key Concepts in Nursing. London, United Kingdom: Sage.

  • For in-text citations with no author(s), cite 1-4 words from the title in the signal phrase or in brackets. Use italics or underline for titles of books and reports; use quotation marks for titles of articles, chapters, and web pages.

("Autonomy," 2008, p. 25). 

See the below examples of reference list and in-text citations for works with no author(s):

1) Article or page from a website

Reference List:

  • Page title. (Date of publication or last update). Retrieved from URL of document
    • Fears of a housing bubble in Canada overblown, report says. (2014, March 21). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/fears-of-a-housing-bubble-in-canada-overblown-report-says-1.2581913


  • ...("Fears of a Housing Bubble," 2014, para. 5).
  • As discussed in "Fears of a Housing Bubble" (2014), low interest and mortgage rates are maintaining affordability despite the continued rise in the average price of homes in Canada (para. 3). 

Note: Use mixed case (capitalize all long words) when citing titles in-text. 

2)  Book or report available in print:


  • Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. (Year of publication). Location: Publisher
    • Key concepts in nursing. (2008). London, United Kingdom: Sage.


  • ...(Key Concepts in Nursing, 2008, p. 14). 
  • As described in Key Concepts in Nursing, although the nursing profession has a significantly long histories, recent growth in nursing research and theory "has far outpaced preceding periods of advancement" (2008, pp. 3-5). 

Note: Use mixed case (capitalize all long words) when citing titles in-text. 

No Publication Date

It is important to indicate the date a source was published as this tells the reader how much time has passed between the publication of the source and the writing of your own research paper. 

There are several exceptions to this rule, such as sources with no specified date of publication. In these cases, substitute the year with "n.d.(indicating "no date"):

Reference List

Substitute "n.d." in brackets following the author(s) name:

  • Scott, G.L. (n.d.). The Canadian government has further softened access to information privileges. Vice. Retrieved from http://www.vice.com/en_ca/read/the-canadian-government-has-further-softened-access-to-information-privileges

In-Text Citation

Put "n.d." in place of the year in brackets or in the signal phrase:

  • ...(Scott, n.d., para. 5).
  • The Canadian Medical Association argued there is no clear evidence the medication is effective (n.d., pp. 8-9). 
  • According to Jenson et al. (n.d.)...

No Page Numbers

When using the exact words within a source or a close paraphrase or summary of a passage, a page number must be provided as part of a complete in-text citation. However, some publications (such as websites) lack numbered pages. To help readers locate the particular passage being cited, provide one or both of these elements:

  1. Paragraph number (counted by yourself or as indicated in the text)
  2. Main heading or sub-heading within the text (if available and appropriate)

To cite according to the paragraph in the source, use the abbreviation “para.” For example:

  • ...(Hall, 2008, para. 5).
  • According to the 2012 Canadian Survey on Disability, “[o]ver 11% of Canadian adults experienced one of the three most prevalent disability types: pain, mobility or flexibility” (Statistics Canada, 2013, para. 2)

If the source contains headings, cite the appropriate heading in quotations and/or parentheses; you may also indicate the paragraph under the heading that you are referring to, even if the paragraphs are not numbered. For example:

  • Hoppin and Taveras (2004) pointed out that several other medications were classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as having the “potential for abuse” ("Conclusion," para. 1)
  • According to the Canadian Mental Health Association (n.d.), "[s]tigma or discrimination attached to mental illnesses presents a serious barrier...to diagnosis and treatment" ("Fast Facts about Mental Illness", para. 3). 
  • Over 10% Canadians experience suffer from a disability that limits their daily activities in some way (Kowalsky, 2009, "Background")