APA Style, 6th Edition

How many author(s)?

First citation (integrated into the text)

Following citations (integrated into the text)

Bracket format, first in-text citation

Bracket format, all following in-text citations

  • One author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

  • Two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

  • Three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

  • Four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

  • Five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

  • Six or more authors

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

  • Groups (with abbreviation) as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)

NIMH (2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

  • Groups (no abbreviation) as authors

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

From the APA Publication Manual 6th ed (p. 177).