APA Style, 6th Edition


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  APA Style, 6th Edition Handouts:

APA Drop-in Workshop Videos

The library provides workshops on using APA style. Click the links below to view recordings of the workshop topics:

What is American Psychological Association (APA) style?

  • APA style is a set of rules for how you credit sources by writing citations and references. 
  • The rules change depending on the type/format of a source (e.g. an article with two authors or a web page with no date).

What are citations and references?

Crediting sources is key to avoiding plagiarism. In APA style, there are two ways you must credit sources:

  1. In the text of the paper when a source is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized (in-text citations)
  2. In an alphabetical list at the end of the paper (references)

An in-text citation and reference provide information about a source such as author and publication year; like a street address, they help a reader locate the source in its original form.

Below is an example of an excerpt from an assignment with in-text citations and a list of references:

General Formatting Guidelines for APA Style

APA style requires you to list all the sources you've used on the last page of an assignment. Entries in this list are called references. A reference typically has four parts that answers these four questions:

The information for each part will depend on the format (e.g. print book, ebook, website etc.) of the source. A period and a space are placed between each part of a reference.

Below are general guidelines that apply to all or most formats. For complete reference rules, choose a format from the sidebar on the left.

(1) Document Formatting
(2) Who created it - Author(s) & Editor(s)
(3) When was it published - Date
(4) What is it called - Titles
(5) Where can it be found - Location

In-text citation rules vary according to the amount of author(s) of the work. For full details, go to the In-Text Citation page of this guide. 

Several details stay the same regardless of the number of authors:

  • All citations should have three elements in the following order:
  • author(s)
  • publication year
  • page number, paragraph number, or heading
  • Use “p.” to cite one page and “pp.” to cite more than one page: e.g. (p. 10)
  • If there are no page numbers, count the paragraphs and use the abbreviation "para.": e.g. (para. 3) OR use a heading within the text in quotation marks: e.g. "Conclusion"
  • Place citations in the text in one of 3 ways:

You are allowed, but not required, to use the title of a source in your writing:

  • For books, films, reports, and other full-length titles, use italics and capitalize all long words:
  • Polley's film, Away From Her, is about Alzheimer's disease.
  • Faith and spirituality are themes explored in Martel's novel, Life of Pi.
  • For articles, web pages, and other sources that are part of a larger publication or source, use quotation marks and capitalize all long words:
  • In their article, "Prevalence and Causes of Urban Homelessness Among Indigenous Peoples: A Three-Country Scoping Review," Anderson and Collins (2014) analyzed multiple research studies from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. 
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APA Drop-in Workshop Presentation Slides